Clinical Trial Methodology Book

Clinical Trial Methodology

  • Author : Karl E. Peace
  • Publisher : Chapman and Hall/CRC
  • Date : 2010-07-20
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Pages : 420
  • ISBN : 9781584889175

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Now viewed as its own scientific discipline, clinical trial methodology encompasses the methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and the methods necessary to provide a valid inference about the objective of the trial. Drawing from the authors’ courses on the subject as well as the first author’s more than 30 years working in the pharmaceutical industry, Clinical Trial Methodology emphasizes the importance of statistical thinking in clinical research and presents the methodology as a key component of clinical research. From ethical issues and sample size considerations to adaptive design procedures and statistical analysis, the book first covers the methodology that spans every clinical trial regardless of the area of application. Crucial to the generic drug industry, bioequivalence clinical trials are then discussed. The authors describe a parallel bioequivalence clinical trial of six formulations incorporating group sequential procedures that permit sample size re-estimation. The final chapters incorporate real-world case studies of clinical trials from the authors’ own experiences. These examples include a landmark Phase III clinical trial involving the treatment of duodenal ulcers and Phase III clinical trials that contributed to the first drug approved for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Aided by the U.S. FDA, the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the pharmaceutical industry, and academia, the area of clinical trial methodology has evolved over the last six decades into a scientific discipline. This guide explores the processes essential for developing and conducting a quality clinical trial protocol and providing quality data collection, biostatistical analyses, and a clinical study report, all while maintaining the highest standards of ethics and excellence.

Innovation in Clinical Trial Methodologies Book

Innovation in Clinical Trial Methodologies

  • Author : Peter Schueler
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Date : 2020-11-01
  • Category : Medical
  • Pages : 202
  • ISBN : 9780323860062

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Innovation in Clinical Trial Methodologies: Lessons Learned during the Corona Pandemic presents a selection of updated chapters from Re-Engineering Clinical Trials that feature innovative options and methods in clinical trials. The Coronavirus pandemic is an accelerator for digitalization in many industries, including clinical trials. This book considers best practices, alternative study concepts requiring fewer patients, studies with less patient interaction, the design of "virtualized" protocols, and moving from data to decisions. This book will be helpful to pharmacologists, physicians and clinical researchers involved in the process of clinical development and clinical trial design. Considers multiple digital and virtual strategies Explores best practices, including the use of reduced patient involvement Brings together expert, trusted information to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical trials

Fundamentals of Clinical Trials Book
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Fundamentals of Clinical Trials

  • Author : Lawrence M. Friedman
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Date : 1998
  • Category : Medical
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 0387985867

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The randomized control clinical trial has become the gold standard scientific method for the evaluation of pharmaceuticals, biologics, devices, procedures and diagnostic tests. This trial design has been successfully used in both therapeutic and disease prevention trials. It is superior to alternative designs by eliminating several sources of bias which exist in those designs. This role has evolved over the past three decades in a number of disease areas including cardiology, opthalmology, cancer and AIDS. While the specifics of using the randomized control design for a specific intervention and disease may differ, the basic fundamentals still apply in developing the study protocol and operational procedures. These fundamentals still apply in developing the study protocol and operational procedures. These fundamentals include identifying the specific questions to be tested and appropriate outcome measures, determining an adequate sample size, specifying the randomization procedure, detailing the intervention with visit schedules for subject evaluation, establishing an interim data and safety monitoring plan, detailing the final analysis plan and determining the organizational structure.This text is structured to address the fundamentals as the protocol for a clinical trial is being developed. A chapter is devoted to each of the critical areas of a protocol to aid the clinical trial researcher. The fundamentals described in this text are based on sound scientific methodology, statistical principles and years of accumulated experience by the three authors. Collectively, the authors have been active researchers in a broad area of clinical trials including cardiology, cancer, opthalmology, diabetes, osteoporosis, AIDS, women's health and screening tests. In these studies, the authors have served as members of the steering committee responsible for developing the protocol and as members of data and safety monitoring committees. The fundamentals were proposed in the first

Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials Book

Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials

  • Author : Shein-Chung Chow
  • Publisher : Wiley-Interscience
  • Date : 1998-06-23
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Pages : 680
  • ISBN : UOM:39015047055416

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A unique, unifying treatment for statistics and science in clinical trials What sets this volume apart from the many books dealing with clinical trials is its integration of statistical and clinical disciplines. Stressing communication between biostatisticians and clinical scientists, this work clearly relates statistical interpretation to clinical issues arising in different stages of pharmaceutical research and development. Plus, the principles presented here are universal enough to be easily adapted in non-biopharmaceutical settings. Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials tackles concepts and methodologies. It not only covers statistical basics such as uncertainty and bias, design considerations such as patient selection, randomization, and the different types of clinical trials but also deals with various methods of data analysis, group sequential procedures for interim analysis, efficacy data evaluation, analysis of safety data, and more. Throughout, the book: * Surveys current and emerging clinical issues and newly developed statistical methods * Presents a critical review of statistical methodologies in various therapeutic areas * Features case studies from actual clinical trials * Minimizes the mathematics involved, making the material widely accessible * Offers each chapter as a self-contained entity * Includes illustrations to highlight the text This monumental reference on all facets of clinical trials is important reading for physicians, clinical and medical researchers, pharmaceutical scientists, clinical programmers, biostatisticians, and anyone involved in this burgeoning area of clinical research. It can also be used as a textbook in graduate-level courses in the field.

Sharing Clinical Trial Data Book

Sharing Clinical Trial Data

  • Author : Institute of Medicine
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Date : 2015-04-20
  • Category : Medical
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 9780309316323

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Data sharing can accelerate new discoveries by avoiding duplicative trials, stimulating new ideas for research, and enabling the maximal scientific knowledge and benefits to be gained from the efforts of clinical trial participants and investigators. At the same time, sharing clinical trial data presents risks, burdens, and challenges. These include the need to protect the privacy and honor the consent of clinical trial participants; safeguard the legitimate economic interests of sponsors; and guard against invalid secondary analyses, which could undermine trust in clinical trials or otherwise harm public health. Sharing Clinical Trial Data presents activities and strategies for the responsible sharing of clinical trial data. With the goal of increasing scientific knowledge to lead to better therapies for patients, this book identifies guiding principles and makes recommendations to maximize the benefits and minimize risks. This report offers guidance on the types of clinical trial data available at different points in the process, the points in the process at which each type of data should be shared, methods for sharing data, what groups should have access to data, and future knowledge and infrastructure needs. Responsible sharing of clinical trial data will allow other investigators to replicate published findings and carry out additional analyses, strengthen the evidence base for regulatory and clinical decisions, and increase the scientific knowledge gained from investments by the funders of clinical trials. The recommendations of Sharing Clinical Trial Data will be useful both now and well into the future as improved sharing of data leads to a stronger evidence base for treatment. This book will be of interest to stakeholders across the spectrum of research--from funders, to researchers, to journals, to physicians, and ultimately, to patients.

Statistical Design  Monitoring  and Analysis of Clinical Trials Book

Statistical Design Monitoring and Analysis of Clinical Trials

  • Author : Weichung Joe Shih
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Date : 2021-10-25
  • Category : Medical
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 9781000462753

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Statistical Design, Monitoring, and Analysis of Clinical Trials, Second Edition concentrates on the biostatistics component of clinical trials. This new edition is updated throughout and includes five new chapters. Developed from the authors’ courses taught to public health and medical students, residents, and fellows during the past 20 years, the text shows how biostatistics in clinical trials is an integration of many fundamental scientific principles and statistical methods. The book begins with ethical and safety principles, core trial design concepts, the principles and methods of sample size and power calculation, and analysis of covariance and stratified analysis. It then focuses on sequential designs and methods for two-stage Phase II cancer trials to Phase III group sequential trials, covering monitoring safety, futility, and efficacy. The authors also discuss the development of sample size reestimation and adaptive group sequential procedures, phase 2/3 seamless design and trials with predictive biomarkers, exploit multiple testing procedures, and explain the concept of estimand, intercurrent events, and different missing data processes, and describe how to analyze incomplete data by proper multiple imputations. This text reflects the academic research, commercial development, and public health aspects of clinical trials. It gives students and practitioners a multidisciplinary understanding of the concepts and techniques involved in designing, monitoring, and analyzing various types of trials. The book’s balanced set of homework assignments and in-class exercises are appropriate for students and researchers in (bio)statistics, epidemiology, medicine, pharmacy, and public health.

Small Clinical Trials Book

Small Clinical Trials

  • Author : Institute of Medicine
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Date : 2001-01-01
  • Category : Medical
  • Pages : 222
  • ISBN : 0309171148

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Clinical trials are used to elucidate the most appropriate preventive, diagnostic, or treatment options for individuals with a given medical condition. Perhaps the most essential feature of a clinical trial is that it aims to use results based on a limited sample of research participants to see if the intervention is safe and effective or if it is comparable to a comparison treatment. Sample size is a crucial component of any clinical trial. A trial with a small number of research participants is more prone to variability and carries a considerable risk of failing to demonstrate the effectiveness of a given intervention when one really is present. This may occur in phase I (safety and pharmacologic profiles), II (pilot efficacy evaluation), and III (extensive assessment of safety and efficacy) trials. Although phase I and II studies may have smaller sample sizes, they usually have adequate statistical power, which is the committee's definition of a "large" trial. Sometimes a trial with eight participants may have adequate statistical power, statistical power being the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the hypothesis is false. Small Clinical Trials assesses the current methodologies and the appropriate situations for the conduct of clinical trials with small sample sizes. This report assesses the published literature on various strategies such as (1) meta-analysis to combine disparate information from several studies including Bayesian techniques as in the confidence profile method and (2) other alternatives such as assessing therapeutic results in a single treated population (e.g., astronauts) by sequentially measuring whether the intervention is falling above or below a preestablished probability outcome range and meeting predesigned specifications as opposed to incremental improvement.

Introduction to Statistical Methods for Clinical Trials Book

Introduction to Statistical Methods for Clinical Trials

  • Author : Thomas D. Cook
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Date : 2007-11-19
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Pages : 465
  • ISBN : 9781584880271

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Clinical trials have become essential research tools for evaluating the benefits and risks of new interventions for the treatment and prevention of diseases, from cardiovascular disease to cancer to AIDS. Based on the authors’ collective experiences in this field, Introduction to Statistical Methods for Clinical Trials presents various statistical topics relevant to the design, monitoring, and analysis of a clinical trial. After reviewing the history, ethics, protocol, and regulatory issues of clinical trials, the book provides guidelines for formulating primary and secondary questions and translating clinical questions into statistical ones. It examines designs used in clinical trials, presents methods for determining sample size, and introduces constrained randomization procedures. The authors also discuss how various types of data must be collected to answer key questions in a trial. In addition, they explore common analysis methods, describe statistical methods that determine what an emerging trend represents, and present issues that arise in the analysis of data. The book concludes with suggestions for reporting trial results that are consistent with universal guidelines recommended by medical journals. Developed from a course taught at the University of Wisconsin for the past 25 years, this textbook provides a solid understanding of the statistical approaches used in the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical trials.

Textbook of Clinical Trials Book
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Textbook of Clinical Trials

  • Author : David Machin
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Date : 2007-01-11
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Pages : 784
  • ISBN : 9780470010150

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Now published in its Second Edition, the Textbook of Clinical Trials offers detailed coverage of trial methodology in diverse areas of medicine in a single comprehensive volume. Praise for the First Edition: "... very useful as an introduction to clinical research, or for those planning specific studies within therapeutic or disease areas." BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol. 92, No. 2, February 2005 The book’s main concept is to describe the impact of clinical trials on the practice of medicine. It separates the information by therapeutic area because the impact of clinical trials, the problems encountered, and the numbers of trials in existence vary tremendously from specialty to specialty. The sections provide a background to the disease area and general clinical trial methodology before concentrating on particular problems experienced in that area. Specific examples are used throughout to address these issues. The Textbook of Clinical Trials, Second Edition: Highlights the various ways clinical trials have influenced the practice of medicine in many therapeutic areas Describes the challenges posed by those conducting clinical trials over a range of medical specialities and allied fields Additional therapeutic areas are included in this Second Edition to fill gaps in the First Edition as the number and complexity of trials increases in this rapidly developing area Newly covered or updated in the Second Edition: general surgery, plastic surgery, aesthetic surgery, palliative care, primary care, anaesthesia and pain, transfusion, wound healing, maternal and perinatal health, early termination, organ transplants, ophthalmology, epilepsy, infectious disease, neuro-oncology, adrenal, thyroid and urological cancers, as well as a chapter on the Cochrane network An invaluable resource for pharmaceutical companies, the Textbook of Clinical Trials, Second Edition appeals to those working in contract research organizations, medical departments and in the area of public healt

Essentials of Clinical Research Book

Essentials of Clinical Research

  • Author : Stephen P. Glasser
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Date : 2014-06-02
  • Category : Medical
  • Pages : 461
  • ISBN : 9783319054704

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In its extensively revised and updated Second Edition, this book provides a solid foundation for readers interested in clinical research. Discussion encompasses genetic, pharmacoepidemiologic and implementation research. All chapters have been updated with new information and many new tables have been added to elucidate key points. The book now offers discussion on how to handle missing data when analyzing results, and coverage of Adaptive Designs and Effectiveness Designs and new sections on Comparative Effectiveness Research and Pragmatic Trials. Chapter 6 includes new material on Phase 0 Trials, expanded coverage of Futility Trials, a discussion of Medical Device approval, Off Label Drug use and the role of the FDA in regulating advertising. Additional new information includes the role of pill color and shape in association with the placebo effect and an examination of issues surrounding minority recruitment. The final chapter offers a new section on manuscript preparation along with a discussion of various guidelines being adopted by journals: CONSORT, STROBE, PRISMA, MOOSE and others; and coverage of Conflicts of Interest, Authorship, Coercive Citation, and Disclosures in Industry-Related Associations. Building on the strengths of its predecessor in its comprehensive approach and authoritative advice, the new edition offers more of what has made this book a popular, trusted resource for students and working researchers alike.

Critical Thinking in Clinical Research Book
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Critical Thinking in Clinical Research

  • Author : Felipe Fregni
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Date : 2018
  • Category : HEALTH & FITNESS
  • Pages : 518
  • ISBN : 9780199324491

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Critical Thinking in Clinical Research explains the fundamentals of clinical research in a case-based approach. The core concept is to combine a clear and concise transfer of information and knowledge with an engagement of the reader to develop a mastery of learning and critical thinking skills. The book addresses the main concepts of clinical research, basics of biostatistics, advanced topics in applied biostatistics, and practical aspects of clinical research, with emphasis on clinical relevance across all medical specialties.

Randomised Controlled Trials Book

Randomised Controlled Trials

  • Author : Alejandro R. Jadad
  • Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
  • Date : 1998
  • Category : Medical
  • Pages : 123
  • ISBN : 0727912089

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The contributors to this study present a balanced view of the strengths and weaknesses of randomised controlled trials in the medical setting. They cover all the essential issues without using statistics.

Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials Book

Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials

  • Author : Scott M. Berry
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Date : 2010-07-19
  • Category : Mathematics
  • Pages : 323
  • ISBN : 1439825513

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Already popular in the analysis of medical device trials, adaptive Bayesian designs are increasingly being used in drug development for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, from Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis to obesity, diabetes, hepatitis C, and HIV. Written by leading pioneers of Bayesian clinical trial designs, Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials explores the growing role of Bayesian thinking in the rapidly changing world of clinical trial analysis. The book first summarizes the current state of clinical trial design and analysis and introduces the main ideas and potential benefits of a Bayesian alternative. It then gives an overview of basic Bayesian methodological and computational tools needed for Bayesian clinical trials. With a focus on Bayesian designs that achieve good power and Type I error, the next chapters present Bayesian tools useful in early (Phase I) and middle (Phase II) clinical trials as well as two recent Bayesian adaptive Phase II studies: the BATTLE and ISPY-2 trials. In the following chapter on late (Phase III) studies, the authors emphasize modern adaptive methods and seamless Phase II–III trials for maximizing information usage and minimizing trial duration. They also describe a case study of a recently approved medical device to treat atrial fibrillation. The concluding chapter covers key special topics, such as the proper use of historical data, equivalence studies, and subgroup analysis. For readers involved in clinical trials research, this book significantly updates and expands their statistical toolkits. The authors provide many detailed examples drawing on real data sets. The R and WinBUGS codes used throughout are available on supporting websites. Scott Berry talks about the book on the CRC Press YouTube Channel.

Public Health Research Methods Book

Public Health Research Methods

  • Author : Greg Guest
  • Publisher : SAGE
  • Date : 2014-03-03
  • Category : Medical
  • Pages : 785
  • ISBN : 9781452241333

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Public Health Research Methods, edited by Greg Guest and Emily Namey, provides a comprehensive foundation for planning, executing, and monitoring public health research of all types. The book goes beyond traditional epidemiologic research designs to cover state-of-the-art, technology-based approaches emerging in the new public health landscape. Written by experts in the field, each chapter includes a description of the research method covered, examples of its application in public health, clear instructions on how to execute the method, and a discussion of emerging issues and future directions. In addition, each chapter addresses the topic in the context of global health and health disparities. Such breadth provides readers with practical tools they can use in the field, as well as a current understanding of conceptual discussions. Illustrated with engaging case studies that enhance understanding of the concepts presented, Public Health Research Methods is a comprehensive, must-have reference ideal for researchers in all sectors—government, academia, and non-profit.